History of the United States to 1816

When Juan Gines de Sepulveda and Bartolome de Las Casas held a debate in 1550, Juan argued that the “Indians were savages and deserved to be enslaved.” Bartolome countered the argument by arguing that the Indians were fully capable of reason and that conversion to Christianity should be accomplished without force or coercion.

The arguments made by Sepulveda represented the views and supported the Spanish colonists, while the argument made by las Casas represented the feelings and supported the views of the church and crown (Faragher 41).

Arguments presented by Juan Gines de Sepulveda

Sepulveda believed that the Spaniards had a perfect right to rule the “barbarians in the New World.” He considered the native Indians to be inferior, and compared them to apes. He based his arguments on the culture of the Indians to wage continual and ferocious wars as well as their habit of eating flesh of their enemies. He disregarded the argument that they could learn, claiming that they did not show any human cleverness, because even birds, animals, and spiders make structures that no man can competently imitate.

He faulted their system of governing where nobody owned anything individually, which he could bequeath to his children. He claimed that these people had no liberty, and were not forced into the life through use of arms, but they voluntarily agreed to it. He said that this formed the basis of the “service and base soul of these barbarians.”

He continued to say that, if they did not like the way they lived they would revolt and kill the king for the betterment of the society, and because they failed to do this, he saw that the Indians were “born to slavery and not to civic life and liberal life.” He used this argument to advocate enslavement of the Indians, because this would be better than their normal lives (Faragher 41).

Arguments presented by Bartolome de Las Casas

Las Casas presented his arguments at the court and started by first saying that, “the Indians are our brothers.” To counter Sepulveda’s arguments, he began by “humanizing” the Indians. He portrayed them not as savages, but a people that lived in cities, had kings, judges, and carried different roles in the society such as traders. He claimed that the assertions made by Sepulveda were baseless, went against Aristotle’s teachings, and were merely slanderous.

He agreed with Sepulveda’s claims that the Indians were barbaric. Despite this, the Indians according to him were capable of ruling themselves and could learn about the Catholic faith without use of force or coercion. He continued to counter the claims made by Sepulveda by saying that even before the Indians had heard the word Spaniards, they lived in organized states and to a point, their system was superior to the one in Spain.

He poses the question to the Spanish people, whether enslavement would be the best way to “remove barbarism from the minds of barbarians.” He concluded by saying that Christ died for everyone, and thus the Spaniards had no reason to persecute the Indians by calling them savages or enslaving them (Faragher 41).

Works Cited

Faragher, John Mack. Out of Many: A History of the American People, Upper Saddle River : Pearson Education, 2012. Print

Introduction to Sociology: Theorist of Choice


Sociology is a field of science that has influenced the society to a large extent with the upcoming knowledge developed by modern academic theorists. This paper aims at discussing the significant contribution in sociology made by such a famous theorist as Karl Max. This paper aims at looking and describing the classical theory that he developed and provides evidence supporting my choice of the theorist and his outstanding contribution in the field of sociology.


In sociological context, theories play a pivotal role in trying to understand the society and their behaviors per se. Yvonne Vissing (2011) discusses various leading theorists and their significant contributions in the field of sociology.

These theorists include Karl Marx, C. Wright, Howard Becker, W.I. Thomas, Harret Martineau among others. According to Laura Desfor Edles and Scott Appelrouth (2010), to understand one’s contribution in development of the sociology, one ought to read his or her writings to comprehend the ideas behind the theory. Karl’s theory bases on the context that “the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles” (Adorno, 2000).

Marx’s work influenced not only the students, but also other scholars who found his work distinct. An outstanding example is Though Veblen who embraced Marxists models of society and social change (Desfor Edles, & Appelrouth, 2010).

Karl Marx theory

Though Karl Marx never considered himself a sociologist, his work contributed to the promotion of critical thinking, considerably in this field. On critical analysis of Marx’s view, since the emergence of the human society formed its primitive and relatively undifferentiated state, it was and remains fundamentally divided between the classes that fight in pursuit of class interests (Vissing, 2011).

Focusing on the world of capitalism, for example, the inner core of the capitalist system, the source, is the main locus of rivalry between classes, buyers and sellers of labor power as well as exploiters and the exploited rather than functional collaboration (Adorno, 2000). The interests and emanating confrontations of struggle for power pave way for self wake and, according to Marx, are the central determinants of social and historical process.

It is truly normal in the society to find individuals associating in line with class and positions in the society. Marx argues that the relationships between men become shaped by their relative positions with regard to the means of production (Vissing, 2011). This can be termed as being through their differential access to scarce resources and scarce power. Marx further argues that under all circumstances, unequal access to power ought not lead to vigorous class struggle (Desfor Edles, & Appelrouth, 2010).

The important aspect of Marx’s classical theory is in the ways in which specific positions within the structures of the society contribute to determining the social experiences of their incumbents, inclining them to actions geared towards improving their combined fortune (Adorno, 2000). Critically looking at behavior change with regard to development, individuals tend to change relative to the positions they achieve in their lives. This results in differentiation and potent class conflicts of interests within persons and groups in society.

Reasons for chosing the theorist

The contributions made by classical theories in expounding sociological concepts reflected the uprising and development of the world in the nineteenth century. The theories, to a large extent, brought out the changes experienced in the era. This paper critically looks at Karl Marx’s theory of class due to various reasons discussed below.

Contrary to the utilitarians who embrace self-centeredness as a controller of a pleasant society, Marx observes that individual self-interest among capitalists has a destructive impact on their class interest as a whole, as well as influences the eventual self downfall of capitalism (Vissing, 2011). Conditions of work and the role assigned to every person dispose them to cohesion and overcoming their preliminary competitiveness in favor of combined action of the whole class interests.

Secondly, the contribution to understanding the economy and political systems with regard to capitalism has been enormous Desfor Edles, & Appelrouth, 2010). The work developed by Marx gave rise to activists who believed that revolutionaries must organize sociological change. Marx argues that capitalism is inherently exploitative (Desfor Edles, & Appelrouth, 2010).

His study concerning the rights of the workers contributed substantially to the enhancement of the work of the activists. Therefore, it is critical to state that Marx’s work has considerably influenced the change within the society. With the development of dialectical materialism based on Marx’s work, it has been a fascinating quest to study and understand sociology at a larger context.


With the fascinating and humanizing foundations laid down by theorists in the field of sociology, Karl Marx has considerably emerged with significant impetus and influence in the field. Classical understanding of the behaviors and social structures is the core of this study. The quest for power and sustenance in the society has affected almost all aspects of life. In the process of accessing power, conflicts connected with economic and political issues also arise and affect directly or indirectly the lives of the subjects in the society.


Adorno, T. W. (2000). Introduction to sociology. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Desfor Edles, L., & Appelrouth, S. (2010). Sociological theory in the classical era: Text and readings. California: Sage Publications, Inc.

Vissing, Y. (2011). Introduction to sociology. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

Organizational behavior analysis outline

This outline explores the aspects of “THE RBS CITIZENS” basing on its history, purpose, stakeholders, practices, challenges, opportunities and recommended solutions.

Organizational Overview

Relevant History

“The RBS CITIZENS” is a commercial bank that constitutes diverse companies, branches, ATMs and employees (Benioff & Adler, 2006). The bank was initiated in 1829 as the High Street Bank in Hoyle Square then Providence Rhode Island, which was a busting market center.

Later, the directors of High Street Bank received a second charter and founded Citizens Savings Bank, which was a joint savings that received the initial official deposits in 1871. By 1947, Citizens purchased stock in the High Street Bank and attained complete administration of its original parent. It begun opening branch offices and became a member of the FDIC in 1950 making it the first mutual saving bank to achieve such a feat. Citizens kept growing making it demutualize in 1986.

Two years later, “the Royal Bank of Scotland”, one of the leading banking groups in Europe acquired it (Benioff & Adler, 2006). Backed by RBS, Citizens bank became the strongest capitalized monetary organization in New England and subsequently gobbled up other regions (Benioff & Adler, 2006).

Purpose and Mission

The mission of the entity is “to deliver superior sustainable value to run our business with integrity and openness, delivering optimum financial results within clearly defined business principles” (Benioff & Adler, 2006).


RBS CITZENS has various stakeholders, which include “the RBS group, RBS American and the Citizens Financial Group” (Benioff & Adler, 2006).

Behavioral Practices

Effective Practices

There are definite organizational practices, which have resulted into the success of the entity. The workers in the organization mostly work as team since individual performances achieve little advantage in the current business world. The success of most organizations is thus attributable to effective teamwork.

The leaders usually affect the teams since their potential and the proficiency to incorporate themselves efficiently into their teams culminate in success. Additionally, RBS’s ability to respond to new competitive situations with admirable organizational creativity has enabled it to react faster to the market’s requirements and fine-tune its operations effectively. Indeed, creativity is evident in teams and not individuals (Rahim, 2010).

Additionally, RBS Citizens increases its employees’ performance by employing reward systems. The reward system in the organizations gives incentives to managers and the workforce. Indeed, the performances have improved and departmental goals met. The supervisors and workforce evaluate how well the previous goals were met, set new goals and establish rewards for meeting new targets.

Personnel are often rewarded after yearly performance assessment when supervisors assess workers performance and offer feedback. This is to aid the staff to upgrade performances and obtain rewards. Reward systems incentivize people thus eliminating unintentional, counterproductive, and detrimental ways. Reward systems motivate persons to meet goals and can help in guiding and correcting unwanted employees’ behaviors (Rahim, 2010).

An additional facet that has led to the success of the RBS CITIZENS is the usage of effective communications techniques. An example of the techniques is the use of audiovisual presentation when passing messages to the employees. It is a helpful technique of communicating the benefit plan to the staff and explaining the alterations in organizational systems. The use of meetings in the entity is also an efficient way of communication. At the meetings, the administrative parties react to employees’ enquiries (Rahim, 2010).


A noticeable challenge that the entity is facing entails management of conflicts. Conflicts escalate as people challenge the old ways of thoughts and initiating events. Consequently, more problems arise leading to recommendations for alterations in the organizations.

The entity’s major conflict arises from the organizational structural design. Such conflicts have always represented basic challenges to the organization. RBS CITIZEN has a very complex structure, which makes it intricate for the organization to react to the changing business conditions (Rahim, 2010).

Another challenge that the RBS faces entails contact amongst diverse parties. This is usually a vital cause of interpersonal conflicts in businesses. Communication barrier at RBS CITIZENS results from the heavy organizational structure that prolongs the line of contact from the sender to recipients. This leads to information distortion before the message reaches the targeted persons (Rahim, 2010).


The organization has great leaders who have the ability to decipher concepts and recognize connections based on knowledge and experience (Rahim, 2010).

Recommended Solutions

The organization should essentially eliminate conflicts through management processes thus improving organizational knowledge and effectiveness. In the organization, every one should be responsible in establishing successful communication. If leaders set up a system for reporting errors but staff do not report errors then initiating organizational changes can be intricate.

Therefore, staff should be educated and trained on the values of effective communication and the effects of deprived communication. The organization should compress its organizational structure, shorten the distance that the messages pass from senders to recipients and adapt easily to the changing business conditions (Dressler, 2004).


Conclusively, successful organizational practices entail a mixture of personality traits, familiarity, acquaintance and skills needed to lead effective practices by managers. The organization has varying stakeholders and it should adjust its services according to the needs of the clients (Rothwell, 2010).


Benioff, M., & Adler, C. (2006). The business of changing the world: twenty great leaders on strategic corporate philanthropy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Professional.

Dressler, S. (2004). Strategy, Organizational Effectiveness and Performance Management: From Basics to Best Practices. Kansas: MO. Universal-Publishers

Rahim, A. (2010). Managing conflict in organizations. New York: NY. Transaction Publishers.

Rothwell, J. (2010). Effective succession planning: ensuring leadership continuity and building talent from within. New York, NY: AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn.

Influencing individuals and groups

Methods of communication

“The RBS CITIZENS” employs audiovisual presentation techniques to communicate with the employees since it is a helpful way of presenting the benefit plan (Beam & McFadden, 2004). It also explains essential alterations in the current benefit plans to existing workers. Moreover, it is effortless for workers to view audiovisual presentations as compared to reading written materials. Indeed, audiovisual presentations can express the employer’s concern for staff when properly done (Beam & McFadden, 2004).

They can explain how to utilize benefits in a clear manner as compared to printed materials. Furthermore, the method is effectual since the sender and the recipient of information can confer on concerns making the point comprehensible. This approach of communication allows the receiver of the communication to pass relevant responses (Beam & McFadden, 2004).

An additional effective technique that the entity uses during the communication progression is holding meetings with employees. The method is efficient while explaining benefit plans and reacting to inquiries. For small employers, the technique helps in presenting promotion strategies to new employees or explaining alteration in the present plans. Often, the “RBS CITIZENS” combines meetings with the audiovisual presentations.

Generally, the person conducting these meetings must be knowledgeable about the plan and possess the skills to communicate such knowledge to the workforce effectively (Beam & McFadden, 2004). The employer’s feelings towards a meeting can affect the organization’s productivity thus they should consider them as essential. They should view this as a technique of communicating their worries about the safety of their workforce and the gains on offer.

To attain the highest worker interest and attention, the procedures ought to present an admirable degree of comfort. Additionally, meetings should be held during regular operational time and not at the end of the workday since the staff may be worried whether the meeting will finish on time (Beam & McFadden, 2004).

An additional effective method that the entity uses is the “interactive voice-response” method through the telephone (Beam & McFadden, 2004). A telephone system is an easier and swifter way of passing messages to a significant proportion of workers regarding concerns such as times for employee gathering, target, and system alterations (Beam & McFadden, 2004).

Communication barriers

A significant communication barrier that the organization faces is the bureaucratic organizational structure. These are long lines of communication, which arise when an organization has a top-heavy, multileveled structure and each layer of management creates a roadblock to efficient communication.

Another communication obstacle in the organization is rivalry among employees where they compete with each other for recognition and advancement. This leads to misinterpretation of facts from one another and the administrative entities.

According to Ciletti (2010), the organization may reduce communication barriers through encouraging an open setting for interaction and feedback. Communication obstacles can be reduced significantly when the management seeks employee responses. Barriers reduction occurs when “RBS CITIZENS” compress their organizational arrangement. Currently businesses are reorganizing their operations and reducing bureaucratic levels thus shortening lines of contact.

Consequently, Information flows naturally and issues are solved faster when messages move shorter distances since they become less unclear. Furthermore, prevention of barriers is achievable by encouraging communication among peer groups. Communication builds bonds among workforce, boosts their morale and enriches the organization through the exchange of ideas (Ciletti, 2010).

Sources of Conflict

The conflicts present in RBS CITIZENS incorporate intrapersonal and role conflicts. The sources of intrapersonal conflicts are goal dissimilarities, unsuitable demand on capacity, business organization, administrative techniques, posts, and traits. Such sources of upheaval either reduce or generate conflicts.

The sources of role conflicts are misunderstanding of the potentials and instructions present in a given responsibility. Consequently, the effects of the role conflicts are work discontent, minimal work participation, lower job dedication, stress and tendency to quit working.

Role conflict also leads to incapability to control decision-making and lack of assurance in the organization. A noteworthy stratagem of solving disagreements is through negotiation meaning that when there are conflicts among parties they ought to negotiate. Negotiation skills are essential in managing diverse categories of conflicts (Beam & McFadden, 2004). Hence, managers need to spend supplementary time to study how to negotiate effectively.

Sometimes the managers are required to negotiate with their assistants or peers; furthermore, they may also be required to mediate on disagreements among their subordinates. Another stratagem for solving conflicts encompasses separating the people from the problem.

If parties can concentrate on substantive disagreements instead of affective conflict, they are likely to engage problem-solving procedures. Consequently, they can entwine themselves with the main attributes of a problem. Therefore, a problem should be untangled and dealt with unconnectedly before working on it.

Conclusively, issue solving should focus on benefits other than positions. This design component will overcome the problem associated with focusing on positions or parties. The goal of conflict management is to satisfy desires, address anxiety and worries. It is fundamental to solve disputes by initially finding out the underlying causal factors instead of focusing on the positions and parties (Rahim, 2010).


Beam, T. & McFadden, M. (2004).Employee Benefits. New York, NY: Dearborn Trade Publishing.

Ciletti, D. (2010). Marketing Yourself. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Rahim, M. (2010).Managing conflict in organizations. New York, NY: Transaction Publishers.

Curtailing Free Speech in Campus is more Costly than it is Beneficial


In early 2011, the Provost’s Office in Oregon State University was under fire following the way it was handling the invitation of a controversial public figure in the institution. The controversy revolved around Tristan Taormino, who according to Corvallis (1) is a “…..self- described feminist pornographer” (p. 1). This woman was invited to be the key note speaker in a conference that was taking place circa February 2011. The conference dubbed Modern Sex Conference was organized by the Campus Women’s Centre.

The controversial invitation and the even more controversial way in which the Provost’s office handled the whole situation brings to the fore the issue of freedom of speech in campus both in the United States of America and elsewhere in the world. There are those who argue that the American public colleges should uphold the so called codes of speech or free speech policy.

Others are of the view that speech codes employed by institutions of higher learning which are financed by the government are synonymous to what the American Civil Liberties’ Union [herein referred to as UCLA] (2) calls “government censorship” (2). Those who belong to this school of thought argue that the public universities should accommodate diverse opinions no matter how controversial they appear.

I totally agree with those who are against speech codes in public campuses. It is my opinion that the costs of curtailing free speech in campus far much outweighs the benefits accrued. This is given the various disadvantages of speech codes in these universities.

Controlling Free Speech in Public Campuses is More Costly that it is Beneficial

It is a fact beyond doubt that The First Amendment to the constitution of this country is very clear as far as free speech is concerned. According to UCLA (4), the amendment protects “(free) speech no matter how offensive the content” (4). This being the case, it is my opinion that those campuses controlling or censoring free speech under the guise of codes of speech are interfering with the constitutional rights of the students, lecturers and other stakeholders in the university.

You will agree with me that a university is one of the most important social institutions in the society. This being the case, I strongly believe that such an important social institution should be open to all opinions regardless of how unpopular they are. Hate speech codes do not in any way help the social institution in fulfilling this role.

According to Uelmen (7), codes of speech are seen as protecting the “politically correct” students from dissenting or unpopular opinions. This is contrary to one of the universities’ most important roles. I believe that such students will not be able to effectively react to unpopular opinions in the society after graduation.

I must point out at this juncture that I am not advocating for the total abolishment of codes of speech in public universities. What I am saying is that the codes of speech should be flexible enough to accommodate beneficial unpopular opinions while safeguarding the rights of the majority in the campus. For example, the university should not allow hate speech that leads to “….an intimidating, hostile or offensive educational environment” (Uelmen 6). This is for example forms of speech that are offensive to minority groups such as gays, lesbians and the disabled among others. This applies to free speech in public places in campus and free speech for students and instructors in the classroom.

I agree with some of the arguments cited by those who support speech codes in public universities. For example, I totally agree with them when they argue that hate speech directed at a member of the university from a minority group more than hurts their feelings (Beito, Johnson & Luker 4). Such form of hate speech may entrench discrimination and subjugation as far as minority groups are concerned.

However, I totally disagree with these proponents when they argue that speech codes in campus effectively address the “conflict between the right to freely speak and the right to an education” (Uelmen 9). How can one refer to the suppression of dissenting opinions as right to an education? Surely, education should also address these dissenting views.


The debate revolving around free speech in campus persists within the academic circles today. The divide between those who are for codes of speech in campus and those who are against the same continues to widen. I am not sure whether my arguments in this paper helped in bridging the gap or they just widened it.

I was expecting that the Provost’s Office at Oregon State University will resolve this issue once and for all. However, I was very disappointed when I learnt that the office refused to pay for Taormino’s travel and speaking fee arguing that she might promote hate speech in campus.

The office disapproves the views expressed by this woman arguing that her presence in campus may be more costly than it is beneficial. However, it is my opinion that the decision by the Provost’s Office was a violation of academic freedom and the constitutional rights of both the students and Taormino. I am sure you will agree with me that this is more costly than it is beneficial.

Works Cited

American Civil Liberties’ Union. Hate Speech on Campus. 31 December 2011. 10 February 2012 < http://www.aclu.org/free-speech/hate-speech-campus >.

Beito, David, Johnson, Robert & Luker, Ralph. Who’s Undermining Freedom of Speech on Campus Now? 11 April 2005. 10 February 2012 .

Corvallis, Gazette. Speaker Barred from Modern Sex Conference for Speaking about Sex. 01 February 2011. 10 February 2012 .

Uelmen, Gerald. The Price of Free Speech: Campus Hate Speech Codes. 29 December 2005. 10 February 2012 .

Improvement of the Hp Touchpad and WebOS


It is common knowledge that Apple Inc. has taken much of the limelight for trending products in the tablet market. The Hp touchpad (web OS) was expected to pose a stiff competition for ipad and other competitors in the market but unfortunately, it failed to do so.

In fact, Apple’s ipad two stole the limelight after Apple Inc. launched the product in the first quarter of 2011. From this understanding, the Hp touchpad has been a declining product (but so are other tablets with the android operating system). Comparatively, Hp’s sales are a shadow of the industry’s giant, Apple Inc.

As you may know, in January 2010, it was estimated that Apple sold about three million ipads in less than three months (Nine-to-Five 1). In addition, throughout the year 2010, it was reported that Apple sold more than 14 million ipads around the world. Soon after the launch of ipad two, in March 2011, Apple sold more than 15 million tablets (Nine-to-Five 1). The Hp touchpad has only been able to sell a few thousand units.

In fact, it is known that the first launch of the Hp touchpad failed to meet your company’s expectations because few retailers reported good sales. Reports show that your company only managed to sell about 25,000 of the 270,000 units produced, thereby leading to the launch of the fire-sale offer, which marked a significant fall in projected profits for your company (Sheldrake 38).

The same reception that your company received in the US was no different for other markets across the world. For instance, in Europe, it was estimated that the Hp touchpad only sold 12,000 units across the continent, after which a lull in sales was reported. In addition, the Australian market did not react any differently because the Hp touch pad was on the shelves for only for days and it barely sold more than 1,200 units (Sheldrake 38).

Due to the poor performance of the Hp touchpad, many people started speculating the reasons for the poor sales performance of the gadget with some experts observing that the lack of Apps and the failure of your company to incorporate a lackluster advertising feature were the main reasons for the poor sales of the gadget (Sheldrake 38).

Some observers also speculated that the $99 fire-sale offer was part of an effort to get rid of your inventory, subject to the poor sales. Due to the above intrigues, Apple currently dominates about 75% of the tablet market in the world (Sheldrake 38).

Not many companies have undergone the experiences your company has had with the Hp touchpad but it is important to highlight that this experience can be used to better the performance of the Hp touchpad for the future. The fire-sale offer is one such experience but its importance will be highlighted in subsequent sections of this letter.

Competition in the tablet market is just one aspect of the tag of war between Hp touchpad and other products in the market because the main goal of these companies is making quality products (Nine-to-Five 1). Apple Inc. already has a strong reputation for making quality products but so does Hp. Going forward; Hp is expected to forge a formidable competition for Apple Inc. and other participants in the tablet market.

For instance, ipad two has been cited as among the highest trending products for UK and US consumers in 2011 (Shopvolution Ltd 1). Hp does not come any close. This trend needs to change. There is still enough room for growth and change because the Hp touchpad has a strong degree of usability considering it spans across business, education, healthcare and consumer sectors (Nine-to-Five 1).

Moreover, recent studies by Sheldrake show that the tablet market is growing with its increased popularity. In America, it is estimated that 19% of adults own a stake of some sort and 10% of the same focus group own tablets (Sheldrake 38).

Among the adult population, it is no secret that there are immense opportunities for growth. For instance, the 10% penetration rate of tablets in the American adult population indicates that about 90% of the market is still open to growth.

The uptake of tablets among the adult population is also steadily growing with recent reports indicating that the adult population owing tablets has increased by 18% over the past few years (Sheldrake 38). The same growth has been witnessed among e book readers but experts note that decreased costs of both gadgets may lead to the increased uptake of tablets and e book readers.

Nonetheless, despite the declining trend of the HP touchpad, it is crucial to point out that the technological world is subject to many uncertainties. This analogy means that there is room for improvement. This view is affirmed by the graph below which shows that Hp’s touchpad has witnessed increased tablet traffic compared to other android tablets

Months (2011)

From the above graph, it is correct to say that, the success of the Hp touchpad needs to be guaranteed (in the future) because there is growing competition in the touch pad market. This competition not only comes from Apple Inc. but also other technological companies such as Google and Sony (Nine-to-Five 1). Furthermore, there are existing concerns regarding the Hp touchpad and webos such as the lack of a social network, the inability to integrate with cloud computing and similar concerns (Nine-to-Five 1).

Since the Hp touchpad does not trend now, it is important to ensure that this market status does not remain the same. This goal can be achieved by adopting a raft of recommendations that will be highlighted in subsequent sections of this letter. I hope that this address will be able to convince the board of directors that the success of Hp touchpad lies in constant innovation and addressing pertinent customer concerns.


The first component of the Hp touchpad that needs reviewing is its stylus. Your company developed the Hp touchpad with very little consideration of its stylus. Perhaps this view (of your company) stems from the commonly held belief that stylus does not have a place in tablet development (Raggi 6).

Though there have been tablets that have been developed with stylus, their success has not been realized because stylus has not been correctly applied (Raggi 6). Hp touchpad’s applications have a series of poorly developed applications. These applications have significant defects in them because Hp touchpad relies on the capacity touch screen. It is therefore important for your company to consider incorporating stylus into the gadget. This will improve the product’s usability (Raggi 6).

The second item that your company can do to improve the performance of Hp touchpad is to incorporate a sense of productivity to the gadget. Research shows that consumers want a product that not only provides entertainment but also gives them a sense of productivity (Williams 180).

Your company should especially consider this aspect in the product improvement stage of Hp touchpad because the current economic situation in most countries is not favorable to increased spending. Therefore, many consumers will be more attracted to a gadget that provides them with an economic benefit in the wake of poor economic performance.

The incorporation of the concept of productivity in the Hp touchpad should however be perceived as an improvement to the product because it would be unfair to say that the gadget does not have any productive elements in its application. For instance, the product has a word document-editing feature, and a program for developing presentations but none of these applications provide the productive features realized from conventional computers.

For instance, the lack of a keyboard is a great weakness of the Hp touchpad. Though I would not advise your company to copy another feature from a rival product, for explanation purposes, I would advise your company to develop similar features such as what the asus transformer does for other touch pads.

The asus transformer is proved to increase the productivity of touch pads such as transforming gadget into a notebook computer (Williams 180). Hp can therefore embark on a research and development process to improve the productivity of the gadget. This step eliminates the notion that the Hp touchpad is (almost) a pure consumable product.

It is also important to note that your company can adopt a consumer-friendly price strategy to boost the company’s prospects of achieving a high sales target in its future sales. I approve this strategy because it was evident from the fire sale strategy (which your company adopted) that price was a possible barrier to the sales of the hp touchpad.

With a sudden decrease in price, it was seen that the sales of the touchpad skyrocketed and most of the outlets stocking your products sold out in a few days. This event highlights a very important aspect in this analysis – consumers are willing to buy products at a relatively pocket-friendly price.

This event also puts to rest speculations about the quality of your product or its salient features being the main reason the product failed to meet your company’s initial sales target. However, this statement should not be misunderstood to mean that your company should not make any product improvements; it only stands to show that there is need for a careful balance between the pricing strategy and the product development strategy of Hp’s products.

From this understanding, I propose a flexible price strategy that guarantees profitability and commendable sales for your company. It is therefore crucial to ensure that your company carefully watches the market response with the launch of a new hp touchpad. When the uptake of the product is low, it is important to adjust the prices downwards to achieve higher sales.

Hp can also consider using windows eight for its next generation of touch pads because of the immense opportunities windows eight offers. Though there are concerns regarding the use of windows eight on tablets, it is important to note that when the specifications for the HP tablet are considered “a 1.2 GHz Qualcomm Snapdragon dual core processor and a 9.7 inch, 1024 x 768 pixel capacitive touch screen display” (Sheldrake 38) windows eight would be successfully installed on the hp touchpad.

However, to stay on the safe side, it is crucial for your company to recognize the tremendous potential of building an Hp touchpad that effectively integrates with windows eight operating system. I say this with utmost surety because there is enough cause for concern to question the use of windows eight on existing Hp tablets. Using windows eight on the Hp tablet would be an interesting addition to the gadget because it will improve the user-experience.

There are many reasons to contemplate the use of windows eight operating system on the Hp touchpad. One such reason is that, windows eight is expected to ease the transition between applications in an almost natural manner (Sheldrake 38). In addition, windows eight will aid the increase or decrease of the size of different windows of the tablet (to the side of the screen) such that the user will find it easier to multitask.

The windows eight operating system is also expected to contain JavaScript, which will aid the functioning of program web-based applications to improve the performance of the touchpad. The use of other applications such as advanced browsers will also be easily accommodated in the windows eight operating system (Sheldrake 38). These characteristics will improve the user experience.

Finally, it is important to mention a raft of other recommendations that can improve the uptake of the hp touchpad. Some of these recommendations are minor but indeed, they will contribute to the increased uptake of your product. One such recommendation is the installation of a rear-facing camera. Other tablets in the market have this feature and though it is important for Hp to be unique, it is vital for the company not to lag behind other companies in adding fancy features, which will attract more customers.

The installation of a rear-camera will not be a costly addition to the design of the touchpad and therefore, such a recommendation can be quickly adopted. Another minor addition to the Hp touchpad would be the addition of a powered USB host to facilitate the easy integration of the gadget with other devices such as a camera, PC and the likes.

Similar to the procedure for adding a rear-view camera, the inclusion of a powered USB host is not a costly addition. Finally, it will be important to include a mini HDMI to improve the user’s experience. These recommendations are minor and they are inexpensive. In fact, these recommendations should be considered before undertaking any previously mentioned additions.


The above recommendations are set to improve the performance of the Hp touchpad because they will solve some of the main inherent weaknesses of the gadget. However, it is in order to affirm that your company has done a good job in delivering a quality product in the market and as noted in this letter, Hp should realize improved success in its touch pad product segment. I hope you will consider some of these recommendations.

Works Cited

Nine-to-Five. Reality Check: Apple’s Ipad Has No Competition. 16 September. 2011. Web. 22 January. 2012. .

Raggi, Emilio. Beginning Ubuntu Linux: Natty Narwhal Edition. London: Apress, 2011. Print.

Shopvolution Ltd. Top Trending Products of 2011 in the UK. 12 December. 2011. Web. 22 January. 2012. .

Sheldrake, Philip. The Business of Influence: Reframing Marketing and PR for the Digital Age. London: John Wiley & Sons, 2011. Print.

Williams, James. Learning HTML5 Game Programming: A Hands-On Guide to Building Online Games Using Canvas, SVG, and WebGL. London: Addison-Wesley Professional, 2011. Print.

Conrad Hilton and Hilton Hotels Corporation

Hilton has set records as one of the largest hotels globally providing high quality and stylish hospitality. Currently Hilton provides full hotel services to more than seventy five countries with more than five hundred and forty hotel brands.

This is a rare achievement that makes Hilton a leader in the hotel industry. The reason why Hilton has been able to maintain high standards in the long run is the innovative move towards the provision of quality products, facilities and services. Hilton has always led the way in coming up with new ideas like having televisions in the guest houses.

Hilton was also the primary initiator of the notion in franchising hotels, in the industry, opened the first airport hotel and initiated the first system to provide multi-hotel reservation services (Walker 76). For the past ninety years, Hilton has worked hard to ensure that it remains the top in the industry and consistently revealed an unbeatable expertise.

The other feature that has been emulated by thousands of other hotels in the industry is Hilton’s spirit to uphold hospitality and its unique culture. Hilton members have always formed a strong team that works on shaping the traveler’s events every day. The team members are given an opportunity to explore their careers in hospitality in all Hilton hotels and resorts globally.

Besides the hospitality, Hilton undertakes a function in the global society by participating in charitable activities and encouraging others to join them in these activities (Walker 78). Hilton also values and appreciates the community in which it operates in (Walker 88).

Hilton is an impressive hotel that no one can resist its services. High levels of hospitality and team work in ensuring quality services makes all the difference. What makes Hilton even more appealing is the creativity to provide maximum customer satisfaction. Making itself part of the global community is also remarkable.

Works Cited

Walker, John R. Title Introduction to Hospitality. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall Higher Education, 2008.

Fundamentals of Intercultural Communication

Critical Response (Fundamentals of Intercultural Communication)

Cultural identity and diversity is a major source of conflicts the world over. Misunderstandings concerning different cultural beliefs and the culturally labeled stereotypes have formed barriers among communities preventing the building of a culturally integrated world community. Many studies have shown widespread cases of anti-Semitism, Islamophobia, xenophobia and homophobia (Bergmann, 2008).

In Bergmann’s article, ’Anti-Semitic Attitudes in Europe: A Comparative Perspective’, the author analyzes the attitude expressed towards the Jewish community in Europe. Unlike other minority groups in Europe, the Jews face more segregation owing to the stereotype created about them in reference to the past association with the communities there, particularly, Germany and Austria, countries that were involved in the Holocaust.

Since the 19th century, prejudice against the Jewish community has not changed much with a general perception being that they are economically and politically powerful and a threat to other world communities. The article depicts that like other conspiracy theories, the anti-Semitic propositions are part of justifications pointing to social challenges facing the world resulting from globalization such as unemployment and poverty.

The segregator perception and attitude created against the Jewish community is used as a justification for their persecution. The propaganda is also used to remove guilt in the perpetrators who persecuted the Jews in yester years (Bergmann, 2008).

The anti-Semitic attitude expressed towards the Jews is a form of community-focused enmity or a prejudice directed against minority groups. The Jews have not been known to reject interacting with other communities or initiating conflicts. Furthermore, in their small numbers in the foreign countries, the Jews influence is minimal as compared to that postulated by past history.

For this reason, they are regarded as outsiders. The attitude is also used to build national esteem by the nations they were persecuted. The Middle East conflict pitting Israel and Palestine has also influenced the attitude towards the Jews in Israel (Bergmann, 2008).

Brian Gabrial’s article on ‘The Second American Revolution’ examines the presentation of Canadian identity by Canadian newspapers, The Globe and The Gazette in 1861 in reference to the revolution. The publications brought to the fore themes on Canadian identity, her liberal and conservative politics, attitude towards the American democracy and the Canadian populace fears towards the military structuring of the American leadership.

Intercultural conflicts resulted in a fierce civil war which would change Canada’s identity. The article brings out the attitudes the Canadians harbor against the Americans. The author of Imaginary Canadian, Tony Wilden says that the Canadians view the Americans with negative and positive attitudes in equal measure. Cultural identity is depicted as a major issue in any society (Gabrial, 2008).

The newspapers gave a British identity to Canada in reference to the nation’s close association with elementary British politics, diplomacy and socio-cultural trends. The expressions by the journalists and editors of these newspapers reveal the importance attached to racial and cultural identity.

The articles show the existence of suspicion between America and Canada, and the never ending desire by the Canadians to curve their own identity and not appear as a subsidiary of the greater American community. The author tries to use the newspaper articles to address a vital topic on what gives a nation her identity and sovereignty.

In the search for an independent identity after the civil war, Canada faced an enormous challenge in shifting from a British identity she adopted before the war to a new identity following confederation structuring. The internal tussle arose due to existence of both French and British-speaking communities within Canada as well as the geographical location that would categorize them more easily as Americans (Gabrial, 2008).

In ‘Cultural conflicts of the child-centered approach to early childhood education in Taiwan’, the authors discuss the cultural conflicts surrounding the adoption of western education model in Taiwanese preschools. The child-centered approach appears as a foreign concept and arguments against its use arise from the liberation accorded to the learner.

The freedom given to the child is meant to create a sense of responsibility but opponents argue that it goes against the conventional culturally acceptable model of disciplining a child. The approach seems to give privileges to a particular class and maligning those from different cultural backgrounds and socially disadvantaged children (Lee & Tseng, 2008).

Opponents of the model claim that the freedom and self-governance it presents is a foreign concept and a reserve for a certain cultural background. The implantation of such a model to be a globally accepted practice requires a more thorough analysis of its impacts on the different cultural structures of a certain people.

The Taiwanese situation has aroused cultural conflicts owing to the marked distinctions between the eastern and the western formation and up bringing of a child. The aura of self governance as proposed by the model gives children too much freedom which could destroy their behavioral set ups. It is important that adoption of a successful cultural tool in a certain environment considers the impact of its application in a different environment to avoid conflicts arising (Lee & Tseng, 2008).


Bergmann, W. (2008). Anti-Semitic Attitudes in Europe: A Comparative Perspective. Journal of Social Issues, 64(2). pp. 343-362.

Gabrial, B. (2008).”The Second American Revolution”: Expressions of Canadian Identity in News Coverage at the Outbreak of the United States Civil War. Canadian Journal of Communication, 33: 21-37.

Lee, I & Tseng, C. (2008). Cultural conflicts of the child-centered approach to early childhood education in Taiwan. The Hong Kong institute of education.28 (2): 183-196.

Employment and religious rights of employees

Employers ought to respect and accommodate employees’ right to worship, to the extent that the worship does not “cause hardship in the conduct of the employer’s business” (Smith, n.d.). In some cases, employer’s business activities are restricted, in order to accommodate employees’ religious practices. Even though courts are not required to verify an employee’s bona fide religious beliefs, several contentious cases have created the need for the courts to determine whether employees’ claim constitutes a bona fide religious belief.

The U.S. Supreme Court fails to express a clear decision on the need to establish a prima facie case, due to complexities that might arise. However, EEOC has a provision on the need to establish a prima facie case, based on ‘Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964’ (Evans, 2007).

Through this Act, EEOC clearly states that “An employee establishes a prima facie case of religious discrimination by showing that the employee has a bona fide religious belief that conflicts with an employment requirement, the employee informed the employer of this belief and that the employee was disciplined for failing to comply with the conflicting employment requirement” (Smith, n.d.). These elements are evident in U.S. Postal Service v Hoffman case.

In the U.S. Postal Service v Hoffman case, Mr. Hoffman’s claim indicates that the U.S. Postal Service violates his right to observe holy Sabbath, as the corporation requires him to work on Sundays. Being a Roman Catholic, Mr. Hoffman claims that he rightly deserves to be allowed to abstain from work on Sundays, since it is his day of worship.

Mr. Hoffman’s argument is based on Roman Catholics belief that Sunday is a Sabbath, a day in which people ought to abstain from work. In this case, Mr. Hoffman required the U.S. Postal Service to alter its shifts system to accommodate his religious beliefs. Thus, Mr. Hoffman argues that the corporation ought to exempt him from work on Sundays.

Initially, the high court had ruled in favor of the U.S. Postal Service, since the Corporation had argued that Mr. Hoffman had not established a prima facie case. The Corporation argued that abstaining from work on Sundays does not constitute bona fide religious belief amongst the Roman Catholics.

However, Mr. Hoffman’s appeal to EEOC overturned the high court ruling. In its ruling, EEOC determined that the U.S. Postal Services was at fault, since it based its argument on its own interpretation of the basic tenets of Roman Catholic. The EEOC ruled that Mr. Hoffman had established a prima facie case, in which he had clearly persuaded the EEOC that working on Sundays conflicted with his bona fide religious beliefs (EEOC, 2008).

EEOC further faults the U.S. Postal Service’s initial argument, on the basis that the Corporation ignored the fact that observance of Sabbath constituted Mr. Hoffman’s personal religious beliefs, which are closely associated with the basic tenets of Roman Catholicism. Therefore, Mr. Hoffman “had met his burden of presenting a prima facie case of discrimination” (Smith, n.d.).

The U.S. Postal Service v Hoffman is a model case in which an employer’s activities are restricted in respect to an employee’s religion. By ruling in favor of Mr. Hoffman, EEOC directed the U.S. Postal Services to alter the shifts program and exempt him from work on Sundays, which would allow him to observe his Sabbath. EEOC’s ruling shows that employers have a duty to respect employees’ freedom of worship, especially in cases where employees’ religion does not pose any harm to an organization’s activities.

Reference List

EEOC. (2008). Section 12: religious discrimination. Retrieved from http://www.eeoc.gov/policy/docs/religion.html

Evans, J. (2007). Religious accommodation in the workplace: can we strike a balance? ` Retrieved fromhttp://www.uri.edu/research/lrc/research/papers/Evans_Religious_ Accommodation.pdf

Smith, D. (n.d.). Workplace religious freedom: what is an employer’s duty to accommodate? A review of recent cases. Employment and Labor Law Journal. Retrieved from http://castle.eiu.edu/alsb/Archives/V10I1Fall2004/religious %20accommodation.pdf

Red Cross Crisis in Haiti

Red Cross: Its Mission and Purpose

The American Red Cross is a humanitarian, not-for-profit organization that has been organize by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter, as well as the fundamental principles of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (The American Red Cross, 2011). The venture provides help to people who became the victims of natural disasters and catastrophe so as to prevent and react to the emergencies.

According to the Fundamental Principles of the Red Cross, humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary services, and universality are five main pillars shaping the organization’s main mission and purposes (The American Red Cross, 2011). Hence, the Red Cross has been created to provide assistance to people irrespective of race, nationality and social status to prevent and diminish the consequences of disaster.

Its core purpose is to support victims of disasters and protect their health (The American Red Cross, 2011). Finally, organization promotes a message about cooperation, understanding, friendship and lasing peace all over the world. The movement remains independent because it is not subject to government and the laws of different countries.

Red Cross Crisis in Haiti: Exploring the Facts and Consequences

Two years ago, the population of Haiti suffered from a 7.0 earthquake leading to significant destructions and leaving millions of people without home. Minnesota, along with other U.S. states, responded actively to the disaster and donated a significant sum of money for improving the situation in Haiti.

Now, the Red Cross has introduced a two-year report on the efforts and actions taken in Haiti to relieve the population (MyFox, 2012). The report presents significant progress in front of serious challenge, but some of the presented facts can lead to negative publicity concerning the action plan (MyFox, 2012).

The point is that the American Red Cross got nearly $ 486 million in donations whereas $ 330 million were spent only on Haiti recovery efforts (MyFox, 2012). One the one hand, many questions arise concerning the remaining sum of money. One the other hand, the Red Cross’s campaign has not been completed yet and, therefore, there are no reasons for rushing in conclusions.

Identifying Specific Goals and Their Rationale

As the world-known non-profit organization, the Red Cross should introduce a new form of reporting through publicly presenting information about financial matters. In such a way, it is possible to enhance information transparency and accuracy to ensure the population of their donations invested to prevent disasters.

Specifically, the report does not only improve communication and relation with outside stakeholders, but also attract more investors. Sustainability reporting can also enhance the Red Cross reputation and contribute to effective alleviation of critical situations.

Introducing sustainability reporting system can help the organizations several goals. To begin with, the Red Cross can uncover a number of opportunities for development, as well as provide a full picture of existing problems in the country and outside it. Second, organizational performance and sustainability can improve organization’s relation with the most influential investors and monitor all environmental, social, and economical aspects of development influencing the activities and efforts initiated by the Red Cross.

Finally, external disclosure of information can increase chances of the organization to create a powerful network for eliminating the consequences of natural disasters. In addition, the new reporting system can sustain organization’s reputation at an appropriate level and increase its influence all over the world.

Defining Steps for Achieving the Established Goals

In order to achieve the identified goals, a specific framework should be established. A changing pattern can be introduced through a number of steps. First of all, it is purposeful to identify the main target of the organization, which will be environment, people, community, and human resource management (Global Reporting Initiative, 2011).

Second, it is necessary to organize a survey to define how people evaluate the action and effects presented by the organization (Global Reporting Initiative, 2011). Third, organization should focus on the most problematic areas to define the main strengths and weaknesses of those. Finally, the Red Cross should establish effective schemes of responding to disasters, as well as plan the reports on efforts and reliefs within shorter periods of time.

Introducing a management approach can significantly increase productivity and performance, as well as attract more volunteers to take part in different missions. Reporting about the impact of Red Cross activities on the community should also be launches for the American to have a better idea of the importance of developing the organization.

More importantly, the above-presented principles and steps are congruent with the mission and purpose of the organization. The only difference is that it provides a transparent picture of all operations. With regard to the Red Cross crisis in Haiti, the following framework can be presented:

Introduce a detailed report on the financial resources used during the disaster;
Provide an account on the remaining sum of money that can be distributed for reconstruction of buildings and technological devices for improving safety and quality of life in Haiti.
Establish new principle of mutual interaction between people investing money and people receiving help. Specifically, it is important for investors to know how their money is used for eliminating the disaster.

Evaluation Plan: Assessing the Outcomes

Many companies, including non-profit organization, strive to work out effective strategy for managing people and monitoring daily operations and activities. Because the American Red Cross is a powerful organization possessing a great number volunteers working for them, it is rational to pay attention to such issues as diversity, information exchange, and public influence on the organizational performance.

The introduction of the action plan should provide the corresponding correction to the established mission and purpose of an organization. More importantly, the given plan can provide a solid platform for further development in terms of information spread among mass media. The latter should be carefully considered because failure to establish favorable relation with mass media can lead to shaping negative reputation, which can also influence organization’s activities.

In this respect, consistence and transparency can help the Haiti population to recover after the earthquake in the shortest possible time. By changing the policy to the employees/volunteers, the organization acquires greater chances to receive recognition and reputation among the external environment. Hence, volunteers will be more concerned with the outside environment; more importantly, they become more consistent while implanting the Global Reporting Initiative principles of managing reports.

Indeed, sustainability reporting fully meets the needs of the organization because it is also directed at improving social, economic and environment climate. So, the accomplishment of the defined goal will lead an organization to an upper level of development and provide more incentives to work better.


Global Reporting Initiative (2011). G3.1 Guidelines. Retrieved from https://www.globalreporting.org/reporting/latest-guidelines/g3-1-guidelines/Pages/default.aspx

MyFox. (2012). What Happened to You Haiti Earthquake Donation? Retrieved from http://www.myfoxtwincities.com/dpp/news/haiti-earthquake-two-years-jan-12-2012#ixzz1jhCUPY5l

The American Red Cross. (2011). Mission Statement. Retrieved from http://www.redcross.org/portal/site/en/menuitem.d229a5f06620c6052b1ecfbf43181aa0/?vgnextoid=f5195032f953e110VgnVCM10000089f0870aRCRD